X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) is used to define the elemental composition of solid and liquid samples and it is a nondestructive technique. X-rays travelling through the sample are exciting atoms, causing them to emit x-rays with characteristic energies of every  element present. The energy and intensity of these x-rays are then measured.

With XRF analysis, it’s possible to detect elements from Be-U in a concentration range from PPM to 100%. As the sample is excited with the use of X-rays, depths up to 10µm can be analyzed. Using the appropriate reference standards, XRF can precisely quantify the elemental composition of both solid and liquid samples.

There are two different styles of XRF analysis, a wavelength dispersive system (WDXRF) and an energy dispersive system (EDXRF). The difference in these methods is how the x-rays are detected. WDXRF instruments have better energy resolution which leads to improved background intensities and fewer spectral overlaps. STENMAN MINERALS Ab is utilizing PANalytical Axios mAX 4 kW, Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray fluorescence spectrometer.

Main Applications of XRD Analysis

  • Chemical composition of solids and liquids
Ideal Uses
  • Elemental identification in solids, liquids, and powders
  • Identification for metal alloys
Strengths
  • Non-destructive
  • For semi quantitative method; no or small sample preparation requirements
  • For solids and also liquids
  • Sampling depth can be quite high, 10µm
Limitations
  • Cannot detect elements lighter than Be
  • Requires reference standards similar to the test sample for high accuracy
  • No depth profiling capability
Technical Specifications
  • Signal detected: X-rays
  • Elements: Be-U

WD-XRF has been calibrated for compositional chemical analysis using Li-tetraborate glass discs utilising certified natural rock standards. Following main elements are included in standard serie: SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MnO4, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O ja P2O5,and following minor and trace elements (ppm): Ba, Ce, Cr, Cu, Co, Ga, La, Nb, Ni, Rb, Sr, U, V, Y, Zn and Zr.

Omnian Standardless method can be used as well for liquids and solids. This method automatically / semi automatically identifies present elements and calculates semi quantitative results. This method covers elements from O to U.

  • Samples can be measured in vacuum or He-atmosphere.
Applications
  • Whole rock chemical composition
  • Metal alloys
  • Heavy metal contaminated soils
  • Liquids
  • Presipitates
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